After independence, Eritrea’s briefly amicable relations with Ethiopia deteriorated as well, until from 1998 to 2000 the two countries engaged in a calamitous border war in which 70,000 to 100,000 persons died. In that war, military ordnance was deployed on a massive scale. It amounted to the largest air-and-land battle in the history of sub-Saharan Africa. The bombardments devastated Eritrea’s infrastructure and agriculture. The United Nations arranged a truce, but the two countries still have not accepted a peace, and a resumption of conflict continually threatens.